ReactJS: “useEffect” Hook Explained

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In React 16.8, Hooks were introduced to functional components to allow them to maintain state and other React features. Functional components can now utilize the logic previously restricted to class components making them very dynamic. Since their introduction, Hooks have become widely adopted as they leverage more control, with less code. If you want to dive into a detailed overview on Hooks see here. In this article I will be going over one of the React hooks that I have recently been experimenting with: useEffect.


If you have been using class components when building your react applications, I’m sure you have used lifecycle methods before such as componentDidMount or componentDidUpdate to perform side effects like fetching to API’s and such. If you are not familiar with lifecycle methods just know that they are different functions available to use at different times during a components’ lifecycle. With the introduction of useEffect, it can perform all these lifecycle duties with more control, and less lines of code. Let’s take a look at a very basic example of using useEffect.

Reminder when using hooks do not forget to import them as seen on line 1. Let’s dissect what this component is doing. As you can see we are implementing the useState hook that allows us to use and set state but don’t worry about that for now. I am rendering an h1 with my state of “name” included, and I have a button that will change that name to “Dough” when clicked. Let’s look at what our useEffect hook is doing here. useEffect will fire on every update including renders, so when our component first renders it is going to set the title of the document to our state which is “Lucas”. Once I hit the button to change the name the useEffect will fire again and set the title to our state which now reads “Doug”.

Working with the Dependency Array

As I mentioned, useEffect will fire after each change of state. But let’s say you have multiple state variables and you only want an effect to fire when a certain variable of state is changed. Here comes the dependency array, which is a second argument you can pass to useEffect where you can establish a connection to a piece of state. Here is an example:

Here, I have added LastName to state and another button that will change the last name to “Looperman” on click. In my useEffect I have the title set to first name + last name. So you would think that the document title would change when the the lastName state changes, but with the dependency array [name], the effect is told to depend on specifically that piece of state changing. You can also pass in an empty array which will tell the effect to only run once immediately after the original render.

I hope this gave anyone trying to learn hooks a brief understanding of useEffect. There is still more to learn so be sure to check out the documentation linked in the intro. I would also recommend copying this code into a react app and playing around with it to get a better understanding and to see useEffect in action :)


useEffect(() => {document.title = `${name}`})return (<div><h1>{name} is using this application </h1><button onClick ={()=> setName("Doug")}>Change name</button></div>)

Before useEffect, componentDidMount functions would be full of unrelated logic all in one function. There might be a fetch request at the beginning and later you might be manipulating the DOM by changing the title of the page. The useEffect hook will fire after every update(including render) allowing you to be able to break up that componentDidMount into clearer and simpler functions. Let’s look at useEffect in a basic example.

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